Fiche : [REVUE682]
Titre : EPE Journal, European Power Electronics and Drives, Volume 16, N° 3, 2006.
Cité dans : [DIV322] Les revues EPE Journal et EPE Newsletter, février 2011.Volume : 16
EPE Journal Volume 16-3
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EPE Journal Volume 16-3 - Editorial
Invitation to EPE 2007
EPE Journal Volume 16-3 - Papers
A Sensorless Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor Using Ripple Currents in Space Phasor Based PWM Control
Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV Inverter
Comparison of Direct Multiobjective Optimization Methods for the Design of Electric Vehicles
Dynamic Performance Comparison of IRFO and SFO–SM Controlled Drives in Field-Weakening Region using Variable-Saturation Regulators
Characteristic Measurement System for Automotive Class Switched Reluctance Machines
Polyphase Boost Converter with Digital Control
EPE Journal Volume 16-3 - Editorial
Invitation to EPE 2007 [Details]
By Frede Blaabjerg, Aalborg University
The editorial of EPE Journal volume 16-3, July - September 2006, "Invitation to EPE 2007", written by Prof. Frede Blaabjerg, the EPE 2007 Conference Chairman
EPE Journal Volume 16-3 - Papers
A Sensorless Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor Using Ripple Currents in Space Phasor Based PWM Control [Details]
By K. K. Mohapatra, K. Gopakumar, M. R. Baiju, Balarama. V. Murty
A scheme for sensorless flux estimation for the induction motor drives is presented in this paper, where the flux information is derived from the current ripple. The scheme measures the stator current phasor deviation to determine the back emf vector position during the zero vectors of the inverter. The position of the rotor flux is detected indirectly by computing the position of the motor back emf, which is orthogonal to the rotor flux position. The space vector PWM generates a current ripple pattern in the machine current, which depends upon the ripple voltage and equivalent stator leakage inductance. For high speed operation when the time duration for the zero vector switching states are small, an indirect method for estimation of flux position is proposed, where the effect of active voltage vectors on the stator ripple current is eliminated by creating a virtual short circuit at the motor terminals. This is achieved by linear transformation of the fundamental components of two immediate current space phasor deviations within a switching period. The whole scheme is implemented in a space phasor based PWM drive with constant inverter switching frequency. The position of the back emf is estimated for both high speed and low speed by implementing the proposed method in a TMS320LF2407 DSP based board.
Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV Inverter [Details]
By M. Ciobotaru; R. Teodorescu; F. Blaabjerg
In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers (the classical proportional-integral (PI) and the novel proportional-resonant (PR) controllers) have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the singlephase PV system is also presented. The superiority of the PR controller is demonstrated with respect to the PI controller in terms of harmonic current rejection and the capability to remove the steady-state error without using the voltage feedforward (VFF). The control strategy was successfully tested on a real 1.5 kW PV inverter.
Comparison of Direct Multiobjective Optimization Methods for the Design of Electric Vehicles [Details]
By X. Roboam; J. Régnier; B. Sareni; Y. Ferfermann
"System design oriented methodologies" are discussed in this paper through the comparison of multiobjective optimization methods applied to heterogeneous devices in electrical engineering. Avoiding criteria function derivatives, direct optimization algorithms are used. In particular, deterministic geometric methods such as the Hooke & Jeeves heuristic approach are compared with stochastic evolutionary algorithms (Pareto genetic algorithms). Different issues relative to convergence rapidity and robustness on mixed (continuous/discrete), constrained and multiobjective problems are discussed. A typical electrical engineering heterogeneous and multidisciplinary system is considered as a case study: the motor drive of an electric vehicle. Some results emphasize the capacity of each approach to facilitate system analysis and particularly to display couplings between optimization parameters, constraints, objectives and the driving mission.
Dynamic Performance Comparison of IRFO and SFO–SM Controlled Drives in Field-Weakening Region using Variable-Saturation Regulators [Details]
By F. Cupertino; N. Salvatore; G. L. Cascella
This paper proposes to use variable-saturation regulators for Induction Motor (IM) drives operating in field-weakening region, and presents a comparative dynamic-performance analysis between the traditional Indirect Rotor Field Oriented (IRFO) control scheme and a new Stator Flux Oriented – Sliding Mode (SFO-SM) control scheme. The traditional IRFO control scheme has the d-axis current component, torque, rotor flux, and speed loops with four PI-type controllers. The SFOSM control system is a Direct Torque Control – Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM) scheme with closed loops of torque and stator flux without current PI-type controllers. Both control schemes use regulators with variable-saturation in such a way that maximum dc-bus voltage utilization is reached and overcurrent problems are prevented. The experiments are carried out using dSPACE digital controllers and comparative results show that the SFO-SM controlled IM drive and IRFO one are characterized by similar dynamic responses in spite of structural simplicity of the SFO-SM control scheme.
Characteristic Measurement System for Automotive Class Switched Reluctance Machines [Details]
By N. H. Fuengwarodsakul; S. E. Bauer; R. W. De Doncker
Flux-linkage characteristics and torque characteristics (versus current and rotor position) of switched reluctance machines (SRM) can be regarded as the fingerprint of SRMs because they are indispensable fundamental data to model machine behavior for both simulation and control proposes. In contrast to other types of electrical machines, e.g. induction machines and synchronous machines, SRMs are basically characterized by a strongly nonlinear behavior due to typical operation in the magnetic saturation region. Hence, no analytical functions can be applied to describe the characteristics of SRMs precisely. An accurate SRM model inevitably needs the complete machine characteristics in form of data-intensive look-up tables to represent the machine behavior. Basically, the SRM characteristics can be calculated by Finite Element (FE) simulation. However, real SRM characteristics can be different from the simulation model due to secondary effects, e.g. non-uniform material and manufacturing tolerances, which are normally not considered in the FEsimulation model. Therefore, the experimental measurement is preferred. Measuring and preparing the SRM characteristics is a complicated and time-consuming task. The time-expense as well as possible human errors in determining the SRM characteristics can be greatly minimized, if the measurement procedures are automated.
This paper presents an automated characteristic measurement system for determining SRM characteristics experimentally. The measurement system was designed for automotive class SRMs, e.g. starter-generators, hybrid or main propulsion motors. The applied measurement methods, the system design and construction are described in the paper. Furthermore, constraints and discussions concerning the measurement accuracy are treated.
Polyphase Boost Converter with Digital Control [Details]
By R. Mirzaei; V. Ramanarayanan
Boost d.c.-d.c. converters have very good source interface properties. The input inductor makes the source current smooth and hence these converters provide very good EMI performance. On account of this good property, the boost converter is also the preferred converter for off-line UPF rectifiers. One of the issues of concern in these converters is the large size of the storage capacitor on the dc link. The boost converter suffers from the disadvantage of discontinuous current injected to the load. The size of the capacitor is large. Further, the ripple current in the capacitor is as much as the load current; hence the ESR specification of the tank capacitor is demanding. This paper presents the polyphase boost converter, which overcomes the problem of high ripple current in the tank capacitor, which has not been discussed earlier. Comparison between the specifications of single stage and multistage is thoroughly examined. Digital control is more convenient for such a topology on account of the requirement of synchronization, phase shifted operation and current balancing. The control method is simpler and faster than its original form [10]. It does not depend on the previous duty ratio and it has been tested on four boost converters in parallel. Each is a 35W unit switched at 200 kHz. Experimental results in digital control, synchronization operation and current sharing are presented. The control method is implemented using a TI’s general purpose Digital Signal Processor eZdspF2812. This control scheme is applicable for PFC rectifiers as well.
Study of an Electrolytic Capacitor Model as a function of temperature [Details]
By F. Perisse; P. Venet; G. Rojat; J. M. Rétif
With to their large capacity and their low price, electrolytic capacitors are used in many fields of power electronics, mainly for the filtering and energy storage functions. Their characteristics move strongly according to frequency, and temperature. Temperature variation is generally not taken into account in electrical simulation software. In many applications such as transport, industry, space one or in military applications, the variations of temperature are significant. A model taking into account these variations seems to be essential. In this study we propose to define a simple model taking into account characteristics variations of the electrolytic capacitors according to the temperature and frequency. A method of identification is proposed based on genetic algorithm. A good compromise between simplicity and precision is one of the objectives of this study.
This identification was carried out for large electrolytic capacitor of rated value 4,7mF/500V. The comparison between measurements and the model for different temperatures gives good results. The model used in this paper has a precision for temperatures lower than 0°C much better than a standard model. Moreover the limited number of elements used in this model, allows an easy integration in simulation software.
A Controller Design Method of Bilateral Control System [Details]
By T. Tsuji; K. Natori; H. Nishi; K. Ohnishi
Haptic sense is indispensable for skillful operation in a telerobotic system. Bilateral control attracts considerable interest because it transfers the haptic sense to a remote place. Although it is simply composed of two manipulators, its design is complicated. This study proposes an idea that provides a new framework on design of a bilateral control system. The idea is to design the bilateral control system based on a "function", a minimum component of a system role. It enables simple and explicit design for various tasks. The features of the proposed method provide a way to design an adjustable system. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.
Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Alternator Connected to a Diode Rectifier with a Resistive Load [Details]
By Y. Amara; A. H. Ben Ahmed; E. Hoang; L. Vido; M. Gabsi; M. Lécrivain
id excitation synchronous machines are electric machines with two excitation circuits, one with permanent magnets and another wound. The study presented in this paper discusses operation characteristics of a hybrid excitation alternator connected to a diode rectifier with a resistive load. A parametric study is undertaken to evaluate the effect of hybrid excitation alternator parameters on the full load performances. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of hybridization ratio on the generation system’s global efficiency. The hybridization ratio is a particular parameter of hybrid excitation machines. It reflects the ratio between the permanent magnets excitation flux and the wound excitation flux. Measurements on a hybrid excitation alternator allow validating the parametric study and show improvement brought by hybrid excitation.
Non-interacting Control of Web Forces and Cut-Off Register Errors in Rotary Printing Presses with Electronic Line Shafts [Details]
By G. Brandenburg; S. Geißenberger; A. Klemm
Replacing the mechanical line shaft, which is necessary for the synchronous drive of the printing units of rotary offset printing presses, through an "electronic line shaft" consisting of highly precise speed- and angle-controlled AC motors a multi-variable control system is formed which offers much more degrees of freedom than before to control important process variables. Until now it was not possible to simultaeously control web tensile forces and register errors, especially the cut-off register error, which are coupled with each other. On the basis of an extended mathematical process model which has been derived it was possible to find algorithms for a non-interacting, stable and simultaneous control of these two variables in the same or in different paper sections using the angular velocities of non-printing nips as actuating variables. The new control scheme was implemented on the level of the electronic drive controls and tested with a commercial press for illustration printing. This results in a considerably faster, more accurate and wearless control, compared to the use of register rollers which are state of the art. Due to this the amount of waste paper is significantly reduced. Furthermore, the operation of the press is simplified because the tensile force profile can automatically be preselected dependent on the paper grade and converted to set point values for the machine control. These innovations increase the productivity of the plant.
A Two Stage Power Converter Topology for High Voltage DC Power Supplies Under Pulsed Loads [Details]
By N. Vishwanathan; V. Ramanarayanan
High voltage power supplies for radar applications are investigated, which are subjected to high frequency pulsed load (above 100 kHz) with stringent specifications (regulation < 0.01%, efficiency >85%, droop < 0.5 V/micro-sec.). As good regulation and stable operation requires the converter to be switched at much higher frequency than the pulse load frequency, transformer poses serious problems of insulation failure and higher losses. The solution to this problem as a single stage converter is very difficult. In converters operating at high voltage and high frequency, the insulation failure of high voltage transformer is very common. Skin and proximity effect result in higher power losses. Because of high turns ratio, the winding capacitance results in delays and current spikes. Hence a two-stage converter has been proposed. It isolates the HV transformer from high frequency requirement of the regulation. Its block diagram is shown in the following figure. One stage of it, namely, Base power supply (BPS), operates at low frequency and produces majority of the output voltage and power. The other one, namely, fast power supply (FPS), operating at high frequency and low output voltage supplies the remaining power and takes care of the transient variations of line and load and provides the required regulation. The final output voltage is obtained as sum of the outputs of BPS & FPS. Each of the BPS & FPS use phase modulated-series resonant converter as the power-processing unit with zero voltage switching (ZVS). This topology also allows load frequency variation over a certain range.
Power Devices - Future Trends, Future Requirements [Details]
By J. Lutz
The EPE Conference Dresden 2005 included a special session "Trends in power devices" with papers from power device manufacturing companies, followed by a workshop in which 9 leading specialists from the industry discussed under the title "Future Requirements to Power Devices". This discussion, under participation of an audience, consisting mainly from users of power devices, gives the opportunity to show some trends and to give a feeling, what is to be expected from modern power devices in the next years.
International Conference on Power Electronics and Intelligent Control for Energy Conservation - PELINCEC 2005 [Details]
By M. P. Kazmierkowski; W. Koczara; L. M. Grezsiak
The PELINCEC 2005 Conference organized by Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics was held in the historical Main Building of Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, constructed in the second half of 19th century, and has focused on promotion of Power Electronics and Intelligent Control for Energy Conservation. This Conference was co-sponsored by EPE Association.
By J. Salomäki; J. Luomi
This paper introduces a control method for an induction motor that is supplied by a PWM voltage source inverter through an LC filter. A cascade control structure is employed and a full-order observer is used to estimate the system states. Thus no additional voltage or current measurements are needed for the vector control of the motor. Two alternative methods are presented for the observer gain selection. Simulation and experimental results confirm the functionality of the proposed control method.
Fuel Cells for Electric Power Generation: Peculiarities and Dedicated Solutions for Power Electronic Conditioning Systems [Details]
By F. Profumo; A. Tenconi; M. Cerchio; R. Bojoi; G. Gianolio
The Fuel Cells (FCs) output power is usually generated at low DC voltage. The output voltage is not constant and it depends on the operation conditions. Furthermore, the FC dynamic response is slower than the transients typically requested by loads; hence, in many applications, the FC generators must be interfaced with the loads and the other possible energy/power sources. For these reasons, the FC stack output power and/or the batteries/supercapacitors input/output power must be conditioned by means of an electronic power converter. The purpose of the paper is to present the main issues related to the conditioning of FC power output; in particular, considering the specific requirements of the interface electronic converters in the two most important applications: micro distributed generation (or cogeneration) and the transportation systems. The paper mainly discusses the basic circuit topologies of the DC/DC converters dedicated to the FC power conditioning, in particular considering the Proton Exchange Membrane FC technology.
Five-Level Inverter Topology for Induction Motor Drives With Common-Mode Voltage Elimination in Complete Modulation Range [Details]
By P. N. Tekwani, R. S. Kanchan, K. Gopakumar, A. Vezzini
Common-mode voltage (CMV) generated by different topologies of the pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters causes shaft voltage, bearing current and ground leakage current in the induction motor (IM) drive system. Consequently the premature mechanical failure (fluting) of machine bearings and conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) are observed in the multilevel PWM inverter fed IM drive systems. A five-level inverter topology with switching state combination selection strategy for PWM control is proposed for an IM drive for complete elimination of CMV in the entire operating range of the drive, including over-modulation. The proposed scheme is based on a dual five-level inverter fed open-end winding IM drive structure. Each individual five-level inverter of the proposed drive is formed by cascading a three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter with two conventional two-level inverters. Hence, the proposed individual five-level inverter offers simple power-bus structure with less number of power diodes as compared to the conventional NPC five-level inverter. The proposed open-end winding IM drive structure requires nearly half the dc-link voltage and provides increased number of redundant switching state combinations as compared to a single five-level NPC inverter fed conventional IM drive. The proposed CMV elimination scheme is experimentally verified on a 1.5 kW openend winding IM drive.
A Space Vector PWM Technique for Symmetrical Six-Phase Voltage Source Inverters [Details]
By D. Dujic; A. Iqbal; E. Levi
Six-phase a.c. motor drives are usually supplied from two-level six-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs), which are controlled using appropriate PWM techniques. Most of the existing work applies to the asymmetrical six-phase VSI, supplying an asymmetrical a.c. machine (two three-phase windings shifted in space by 30° degrees) with two isolated neutral points. However, it has been shown recently that a symmetrical six-phase induction machine (equidistant spacing of all six-phases, with 60° spatial displacement between any two consecutive phases) offers the same quality of performance as the asymmetrical machine, provided that good quality current control and an adequate PWM technique are utilised for the symmetrical six-phase VSI (Fig. 1) control. Since this requires sinusoidal VSI output voltages (neglecting the PWM ripple), a space vector PWM technique (SVPWM) is described in this paper, such that sinusoidal or at least nearsinusoidal output voltages are generated across the whole range of the available output voltage fundamental for the sixphase load with a single neutral point. Operation of the SVPWM scheme is investigated by extensive experimentation and time-domain waveforms and spectra are given for inverter leg, phase-to-neutral, line-to-line and common mode voltages, as well as for the load current, for a variety of operating conditions. Total voltage harmonic distortion (THD) is also calculated using experimental results and is used as a figure of merit in evaluation of the quality of performance of the SVPWM schemes.
Hybrid circuit breaker test bench [Details]
By G. Bats; P. Ladoux; J.M. Blaquière; M. Francis
The target application of the Hybrid Circuit Breaker presented in this paper is a 6.6 kV/60 Hz network for an electric ship. This Hybrid Circuit Breaker is based on a series association of IGCTs (Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristors) and a fast mechanical switch. In this new topology, thanks to the IGCT turn off control, the fault current is strongly limited and the mechanical switch, turned off at zero current, provides the voltage sustaining. To validate the principle of this Hybrid Circuit Breaker, the authors propose a test bench that can provide a 50 Hz sinusoidal short circuit current with a 18 kA-peak value and a maximum di/dt of 20kA/ms. This test bench displays interesting results and validates many key points of the new topology.
Simple Control of Photovoltaic Generator Systems with High-Speed Maximum Power Point Tracking Operation [Details]
By Y. Toshiya; O. Katsumi; M. Osamu
A simple control method for photovoltaic power generation systems is proposed. This achieves very-high-speed maximum- power-point tracking (MPPT): the controller finds out the optimal operating point within 2 milliseconds. Although this control method is based on the so-called “perturb-and-observe method”, the perturbing signal generator for MPPT operation is not necessary; switching ripples by the DC/DC converter are used as the perturbing signal. This controller measures the photovoltaic array power and tracks the optimal point with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the arrays. The proposed controller is cost effective because it can be implemented by a simple analog circuit; the controller is simplified in comparison with the conventional methods. The high performance of the proposed method is verified by experiment.
Comparison of the Induction Motors Stator Fault Monitoring Methods Based on Current Negative Symmetrical Component [Details]
By A. Lebaroud; A. Khezzar; A. Bentounsi; G. Clerc
This paper presents a survey of the diagnosis methods detecting the stator faults of the induction machines without modeling. The fault signature is based on the analysis of the negative sequence symmetrical component of the current. Two approaches are described and compared: the spectral analysis of the signature using the Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT), the Short-time Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT), the Gortzel algorithm and the synchronous demodulation of the current space vector. The theoretical principles of these methods are presented and their performances compared. The main purpose of this study lies in the investigation of the computational tools dedicated to the diagnosis and minimization of computing time. These methods are applied to an induction machine of 1.1 kW.
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