Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.433-434 2000/3





key words

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.435-443 2000/3


Title:The Future of EMC Technology

Author:Shuichi NITTA

SUMMARY This paper reviews the present EMC technology level, introduces the problems to be investigated in the near future from the viewpoint of design technology, test and measurement and systems safety, and proposes what is a goal of technology level of EMC to be established for circuits, equipments and systems.

key words EMC (electromagnetic compatibility),safety

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.444-452 2000/3


Title:Numerical Techniques for Analysis of Electromagnetic Problems

Author:Kunio SAWAYA

SUMMARY The features of the method of moment (MoM) and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for numerical analysis of the electromagnetic scattering problem are presented. First, the integral equations for the conducting wire, conducting plane and the dielectric materials are described. Importance to ensure the condition of the continuity of the current of the scatterers is emphasized and numerical examples for a conducting structure involving a junction of wire segment and planar segment is presented. Finally, the advantages and the disadvantages of the FDTD method are discussed.

key words method of moment,thin wire approximation,wire/surface junction,dielectric body,finite difference time domain method,dispersive medium,absorbing boundary condition

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.453-459 2000/3

Category:EMC Measurement and Test

Title:A Method for Finding the Direction of Arrival of a Single Short Pulse by the Waveform Reconstruction

Author:Masanori ISHII,Takashi IWASAKI

SUMMARY In this paper, a method for finding the direction of arrival (DOA) of a single short pulse is proposed. The method is based on a waveform reconstruction technique using complex antenna factors (CAF). Since the frequency characteristics of CAF has angle dependency, the DOA of an electromagnetic pulse can be determined by the waveforms reconstructed with CAF. The results of a simulation and an experiment show the possibility to apply the two-dimensional DOA finding.

key words DOA,single short pulse,waveform reconstruction,CAF,self-convolution

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.460-466 2000/3

Category:EMC Measurement and Test

Title:Estimation of Current and Voltage Distributions by Scanning Coupling Probe

Author:Satoshi KAZAMA,Shinichi SHINOHARA,Risaburo SATO

SUMMARY This paper describes a method for estimating current and voltage distributions by scanning with a probe. The method takes advantage of the phenomenon that the coupling between the current and the probe varies with the direction of the probe. The current and voltage are estimated by calculating the probe vector output for each of four directions. Both the current and voltage vector distributions can thus be estimated at the same time by using a single probe. The estimated distributions in a digital IC package and a microstrip line showed that this method produces reliable results. The simple structure of the probe should make it easy to reduce its size.

key words probe,current distribution,voltage distribution,coupling,estimation method,digital IC,microstrip line

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.467-473 2000/3

Category:EMC Measurement and Test

Title:Low Frequency Radiated Immunity Test Using Three-Dimensional Helmholtz-Coil Set

Author:Kimitoshi MURANO,Yoshio KAMI

SUMMARY A radiated immunity test method using fields in a three-dimensional Helmholtz-coil set is described. The incident field to equipment under test (EUT) is generated by an orthogonally structured three sets of Helmholtz coil. Using this structure, the resultant field can be generated with arbitrary amplitude and direction. Therefore, the three dimensional immunity characteristics of an EUT can be cleared. The resultant field is calculated numerically and it is established that the field distribution is uniform inside the three dimensional Helmholtz-coil set. This is also confirmed through comparison with measured results. As an example, the immunity test of a cathode ray tube (CRT) display is made and the immunity map of CRT is obtained without reseting placement of EUT. Such map makes us understand the physical meaning and weak points.

key words radiated immunity test,three-dimensional Helmholtz-coil set,immunity map,field uniformity

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.474-479 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:A Study on the Influence of Ground Plane on the Crosstalk Reduction Characteristics of Twisted-Pair-Wire

Author:Jun SHAO,Shuichi NITTA,Atsuo MUTOH

SUMMARY In this study, the influence of the location of ground plane on the noise (crosstalk) induced on twisted-pair-wire (TPW) by parallel wire is experimentally and theoretically discussed by paying attention to the capacitive coupling between TPW and parallel wire. The capacitance is obtained by applying the finite element method (FEM) to the calculation of electric field intensity. It is confirmed that the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results within 0.5 dB. It is concluded that the closer the TPW is to the ground plane, the smaller the induced noise on the TPW becomes.

key words crosstalk,capacitive coupling,twisted-pair-wire,FEM,ground plane

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.480-488 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:Balance-Unbalance Conversion Characteristics of Untwisted Unbalanced Metallic Pair Lines and Their Application to a Method for Estimating Equivalent Ground Plane

Author:Tsuyoshi IDEGUCHI,Hiroaki KOGA,Yoshifumi SHIMOSHIO

SUMMARY Metallic pair lines transmitting high-frequency information signals above several tens MHz are often used without being twisted, as flat floor cable installed in buildings, ribbon-type cables installed in computer equipment, and traces in printed circuit boards. However, the conversion characteristics of untwisted unbalanced metallic pair lines connecting unbalanced circuits have not been investigated over a wide range of frequencies in the MHz region. First, we developed a method to estimate effective power conversion factors using a cascade connection of F matrices, where the unbalance in impedance and admittance of each pair line is distributed uniformly along the line. As a result some useful information was obtained about the balance-unbalance conversion characteristics of the effective power which can be used to suppress EMI phenomena in wiring, especially over several decades of high frequencies. Next, we attempted to apply the conversion characteristics of untwisted unbalanced pair lines obtained at frequencies below several MHz to techniques for searching for the return circuits of conductors installed in buildings. It was clarified experimentaly that the depth of the equivalent ground plane can be estimated by comparing the measured conversion values of TV feeder lines installed at the place being tested with reference values measured in advance on a copper plate .

key words balance-unbalance conversion factor,effective power,untwisted pair lines,unbalanced pair lines,equivalent ground plane,current return route

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.489-496 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:Estimation of Horizontally Polarized Radiated Emission Sources Based on CISPR Measurement System

Author:Yasuhiro ISHIDA,Kazuo MURAKAWA,Kouji YAMASHITA,Masamitsu TOKUDA

SUMMARY Relating to the radiated emission sources finding method based on CISPR emission measurement system, which uses only amplitude data without phase data, the applicability to horizontally polarized sources was studied. We experimentally verified by using two spherical dipole antennas as ideal emission sources in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 1GHz. As the results, the position estimation deviation d was less than 0.09 m, the amplitude estimation deviation j was less than 1.5 dB, in which position estimation accuracy was raised so much compared with that for vertically polarized sources, and additionally the angle of its horizontal current direction could be estimated. Furthermore, it was revealed that this method can be also applied even when several sources exist, consequently the applicability of this method has been greatly expanded.

key words radiated emission,sources finding method,CISPR,semi-anechoic chamber

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.497-504 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:Method of Predicting Disturbance to TV Signal Reception Caused by Information Technology Equipment

Author:Tetsuya TOMINAGA,Nobuo KUWABARA, Mitsuo HATTORI

SUMMARY A method of predicting disturbances to TV signal reception has been developed in order to workout countermeasures for interference caused by unwanted emissions from information technology equipment (ITE). The prediction parameters were determined by measuring the emission levels from ITE at an open test site, propagation characteristics of unwanted emissions from ITE in a building, the output power of the TV transmitting station, the propagation characteristics of the TV radio waves, and the directivity of the TV receiving antenna. The possibility of disturbances occurring in the Kanto area was predicted and the results show that, in the worst case, a disturbance will appear in about 11% of the areas within 30 m of a building containing such equipment. This also shows that the disturbance can be suppressed by improving the shielding of the equipment or building by as little as 10 dB.

key words EMC,emission,TV disturbance

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.505-510 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:Calculation of Coupling between a Monopole Antenna and a Strip Line in a Shield Case for a Portable Telephone


SUMMARY This paper shows quantitative evaluation of coupling between a monopole antenna outside a shield case and a strip line inside that for a portable telephone. The amount of the coupling is calculated using FDTD method together width EMF method. This combination of methods can raise the calculation efficiency. Dependence of the coupling on the length of gaps, the height of the strip line and the length of the antenna is clarified. The correspondence between calculated and measured results shows the validity of the calculation.

key words shield case,strip line,antenna

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.511-518 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:A Study on Radiated Emissions from Fiber Optical Modules

Author:Takeshi AIZAWA,Hidetoshi YAMAMOTO,Shinichi SHINOHARA,Risaburo SATO

SUMMARY Attempts have been made to evaluate and investigate the radiated emissions from fiber optical modules that are currently available in the market. Far electric field strength measurements show that the radiated emission has a peak at a high-order harmonic wave of the fundamental pulse frequency and reaches a level exceeding the limiting values of the CISPR noise specifications. Near magnetic field distribution measurements show that the source of the interference noise lies between a light emitting diode (LED) module and an LED driver. These measurements are compared with those of electromagnetic field calculations based on a high-frequency equivalent circuit. As a result, it was established that both the peaking effects of deformed pulse waves transmitted between an LED module and an LED driver and the radiation characteristics of the optical transmitter circuit act as factors for increasing the radiation level of the peak frequencies in the radiated emission from fiber optical modules.

key words fiber optical modules,radiated emission,LED module,deformed pulse wave

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.519-524 2000/3

Category:EMC Evaluation

Title:On the Unwanted Radiated Fields due to the Sliding Contacts in a Traction System

Author:Sonia LEVA,Adriano Paolo MORANDO,Riccardo Enrico ZICH

SUMMARY The pantograph current collector-catenary contact has been recognized as an established cause of permanent electromagnetic perturbation in a railway environment. In this paper the problems due to pantograph-catenary crawling are addressed. Introducing a suitable model for the radiating contacts, results in agreement with classical fields theory and with experimental measurements may be deduced.

key words sliding contact,pointing vector,railway system,EM modelling

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.525-531 2000/3

Category:EMC Simulation

Title:Requirements for Controlling Coverage of 2.4-GHz-Band Wireless LANs by Using Partitions with Absorbing Board

Author:Yuji MAEDA,Kazuhiro TAKAYA,Nobuo KUWABARA

SUMMARY For a wireless communication system to work effectively without interference, the electromagnetic environment needs to be controlled. We experimentally and analytically investigated the requirements for controlling the electrical field strength and delay spread so as to achieve the best communication without electromagnetic interference in selected regions for a 2.4-GHz-band wireless LAN system. To control the coverage, partitions were placed around desks in a test environment and covered on the inside with electromagnetic absorbing board from the top of the desks to the top of the partitions; four indoor environments that combined one of two wall-material types and one of two partition heights were used. The transmission loss and delay spread were measured, then calculated using ray tracing to verify the effectiveness of using ray-tracing calculation. The throughput and BER characteristics were measured for the same environments to clarify the requirements for controlling the coverage. We found that covered and uncovered regions could be created by using partitions with absorbing boards and that the delay spread must be less than 15 ns and the received-signal must be stronger than -75 dBm for a region to be covered. We verified that the delay spread can be calculated to within 5 ns and the received-signal level can be calculated to within 5 dB of the measured data by using ray tracing. Therefore, ray tracing can be used to design antenna positions and indoor environments where electromagnetic environments are controlled for 2.4-GHz-band wireless LAN systems.

key words electromagnetic absorbing board,indoor environment,2.4-GHz ISM-band wireless LAN,transmission loss,delay spread,throughput,BER

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.532-540 2000/3

Category:EMC Simulation

Title:EMI Suppression Technique for ISM-Band WLANs Using Multicode Transmission and EMI Observation Channel

Author:Sakda UNAWONG,Shinichi MIYAMOTO,Norihiko MORINAGA

SUMMARY It is well known that the electromagnetic interference (EMI) radiated from industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus seriously degrades the performance of wireless communication systems. In this paper, an ISM-band wireless local area network (WLAN) which employs a direct sequence-spread spectrum (DS-SS) system is designed to be sufficiently robust and reliable to operate in the presence of this EMI. To satisfy this goal, a technique to suppress EMI in the DS-SS system using a multicode transmission and an EMI observation channel is proposed. In the study, the EMI radiated from switching-type microwave ovens (MWO interference) which are ISM apparatus is concerned, and for a tractable investigation, a statistical model to represent MWO interference based on experimental measurement results is employed. As well known that MWO interference exhibits a bursty impulsive characteristic in time, a technique to transmit multiple long spreading codes (multicode transmission) is introduced for the DS-SS system to overcome the burstness of the interference. Moreover, inspired by the broadband in frequency of MWO interference, a technique to estimate the channel MWO interference by means of observing its levels in an adjacent channel is proposed, and this technique is applied to construct a multicode DS-SS receiver which can suppress the channel MWO interference. An evaluation of the bit error rate performance of the proposed multicode DS-SS system is conducted by computer simulation, and the numerical results demonstrate that the proposed DS-SS system can operate effectively even in the presence of MWO interference.

key words DS-SS,multicode transmission,MWO interference,observation channel

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.541-548 2000/3

Category:EMC Simulation

Title:Calculation of Temperature Rises in the Human Eye Exposed to EM Waves in the ISM Frequency Bands

Author:Akimasa HIRATA,Gou USHIO,Toshiyuki SHIOZAWA

SUMMARY The interaction between the human eye and electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) frequency bands is investigated with the use of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In order to assess possible health hazards, the specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated and compared with the recommended safety standards. In particular, we calculate temperature rises in the human eye to assess the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation. The results show that the maximum values of averaged SARs are less than the standard levels. In addition, we observed what is called the 'hot spot' in the region of eye humor at 2.4 GHz but not at 900 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Furthermore, the maximum temperature rise due to the incident EM power density of 5.0 mW/cm2, which is the MPE (maximum permissible exposure) limit for controlled environments, has been found to be at most 0.26 at 5.8 GHz, which is small compared with the threshold temperature rise 3.0 for cataract formation.

key words FDTD method,human eye,ISM frequency bands,specific absorption rate (SAR),temperature rise

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.549-554 2000/3

Category:EMC Simulation

Title:FDTD Analysis of Dosimetry in Human Head Model for a Helical Antenna Portable Telephone

Author:Jianqing WANG,Osamu FUJIWARA

SUMMARY This paper presents a dosimetric analysis in an anatomically realistic human head model for a helical antenna portable telephone by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The head model, developed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of a Japanese adult head, consists of 530 thousand voxels, of 2 mm dimensions, segmented into 15 tissue types. The helical antenna was modeled as a stack of dipoles and loops with an adequate relative weight, whose validity was confirmed by comparing the calculated near magnetic fields with published measured data. SARs are given both for the spatial peak value in the whole head and the averages in various major organs.

key words electromagnetic dosimetry,helical antenna,anatomically realistic head model,FDTD analysis

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.555-560 2000/3

Category:EMC Design of PCB

Title:Resonance Frequency Variation with a Nearby Floated Metal Plate

Author:Akihisa SAKURAI,Hiroyuki TOMINAGA,Takeshi ASANO

SUMMARY It is not rare case that a floated metal plate exists nearby high speed circuit traces. Heatsink placed on a IC chip nearby circuit traces, metal enclosure or circuit traces in a compact designed product may be a good example. It may be also seen such structure for a shield box and circuit traces confined. It is generally known that such metal plate as placing nearby circuit trace may change circuit trace parameters and then resonance frequency associated with the circuit trace. In this study, we clarified resonance frequency variation with comprehensive observation of input impedance of microstrip line that is an essential model of circuit traces on a printed circuit board. Since such structure is created in various cases in product designs, we believe that the results shown in this study may be useful for EMC design as well as signal integrity. For computation, method of moment was used.

key words resonance frequency,impedance,radiated emission,EMI,method of moment

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.561-568 2000/3

Category:EMC Design of PCB

Title:FDTD Simulation and Experimental Study on Line Impedance and Magnetic Near Field Noise for a Simple Printed Line Model

Author:Takashi KASUGA,Motoshi TANAKA,Hiroshi INOUE

SUMMARY This study is to clear how the impedance and the current of a simple printed line model involve to the near field electromagnetic noise radiation, by computer simulation and experiment. Frequency characteristics of the impedance and the current of the printed line and the near field noise are considered, from low to high frequency components. The model size 225 60 0.51 mm3, length of the line is 185 5 mm2 and 1 k termination resistance is connected as non-matching load. FDTD method is used to calculate the impedance, the current waveform and the near field noise. Measurements of the line impedance and the near field noise spectrum by clock pulse are compared with simulations. It is cleared that using FDTD method, the characteristic of impedance of the printed line model, the current waveform, and the near field noise can be calculated at the same simulator. As results, from calculation and measurement, the near field noise has a relationship with impedance of printed line model. Emission at frequency less than 200 MHz, which is near the wavelength of /4, is observed at significant intensity. So, it is suggested that near field noise emission should be discussed from low to high frequency and analysis of the characteristics of the printed line and magnetic near field noise using FDTD method and measurement is useful to basic examination of complex PCB models.

key words impedance of printed line,current spectrum,near field noise,FDTD method

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.569-576 2000/3

Category:EMC Design of PCB

Title:The Effect of Impedance Loading Position on Induced Voltage Suppression

Author:Hidetoshi YAMAMOTO,Shinichi SHINOHARA,Risaburo SATO

SUMMARY In this paper, the suppression of induced voltage on a printed wiring board through impedance loading by inserting impedance devices such as ferrite beads is focused on. How the suppression effect changes according to the insertion position of such devices is also investigated. Electromagnetic-field simulations were used to determine the distribution of voltage and current induced in wiring when a printed wiring board is exposed to an external electromagnetic field. Then, on the basis of these distributions, electromagnetic-field simulations were performed, and experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between the insertion position of impedance devices and their suppression effect. It was verified that induced voltage can be large when a mismatch occurs between the impedance at the two ends of printed wiring, and that the suppression effect can differ significantly according to where an impedance device is inserted. A large effect was obtained by inserting an impedance device at a point 1/4 wavelength in distance from the end of a wire where voltage is being induced. In addition, comparing the use of resistors with the use of chip ferrite beads as impedance devices revealed similar tendencies in both. The above behavior was confirmed by numerical analysis.

key words immunity,suppression effect,impedance,induced voltage

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.577-585 2000/3

Category:EMC Design of PCB

Title:Controlling Power-Distribution-Plane Resonance in Multilayer Printed Circuit Boards

Author:Takashi HARADA,Hideki SASAKI,Yoshio KAMI

SUMMARY This paper describes the mechanisms of power-distribution-plane resonance in multilayer printed circuit boards and the techniques to control the resonance. The power-distribution-plane resonance is responsible for high-level emissions and circuit malfunctions. Controlling the resonance is an effective technique, so adequate characterization of the resonance is necessary to achieve control. The resonance characteristics of four-layer printed circuit boards are investigated experimentally and theoretically by treating the power-distribution planes as a parallel-plate transmission line with decoupling circuits. Analysis of the forward traveling wave shows that the resonance frequency is determined by the phase delay due to wave propagation and by the phase progress of interconnect inductance in the decoupling circuit. Techniques to control the resonance characteristics are investigated. The resonance can be shifted to a higher frequency by adding several decoupling circuits adjacent to the existing decoupling capacitor or by increasing the number of via holes connecting the capacitor mounting pads to the power-distribution planes.

key words EMC,EMI,printed circuit board,power distribution plane resonance,transmission-line theory

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.586-592 2000/3

Category:EMC Design of PCB

Title:Evaluation of Emission from a PCB by Using Crosstalk between a Low Frequency Signal Trace and a Digital Signal Trace

Author:Naoto OKA,Chiharu MIYAZAKI,Shuichi NITTA

SUMMARY In this paper, the evaluation of emission from a PCB by using crosstalk between a low frequency signal trace and a digital signal trace is investigated. These signal traces are closely routed in parallel to each other on the different several signal planes in the PCB. It is shown experimentally that the coupled signal trace with a cable section causes drastic increase of emission from the PCB. From the measurement results of current distribution on the cable section, it is shown that this current distribution contributes to the increase of emission from the PCB. Therefore, emission increasing by coupling between signal traces is evaluated by crosstalk between them. The measurement results of radiation and the calculation results of crosstalk on the PCB (deviation from results of the PCB which is referred, respectively) agree with each other within 2 dB range or 3.5 dB range. This result shows that reduction effect of emission from the PCB can be predicted by calculation results of crosstalk. Moreover, it is shown that evaluation of emission level by using crosstalk is useful to decide PCB's structure for reduction of emission from a high-density assembled PCB. From the viewpoint of practical application, it is effective for the reduction of emission from a PCB to separate a low frequency signal trace from a high-speed digital signal trace by ground plane of a PCB.

key words EMI,radiated emission,printed circuit board,coupling,crosstalk

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.593-599 2000/3

Category:EMC Design of PCB

Title:Common-Mode-Current Generation Caused by Difference of Unbalance of Transmission Lines on a Printed Circuit Board with Narrow Ground Pattern

Author:Tetsushi WATANABE,Osami WADA,Takuya MIYASHITA,Ryuji KOGA

SUMMARY This paper explains a mechanism of common-mode generation on a printed circuit board with a narrow ground pattern. A transmission line has its value of degree of unbalance. At a connection point of two transmission lines having different degrees of unbalance, common mode voltage is generated proportional to the difference, and it drives common mode current. The authors propose a method to evaluate common mode current distribution and verify it by measurement. Although calculated common mode current is larger than measured one by a few dBs, both of them are proportional to the degree of unbalance. An EMI reduction technique, 'unbalance matching,' is also proposed.

key words EMC technology,digital circuit,printed circuit board,microstrip line,common mode current,narrow ground

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.600-607 2000/3

Category:EMC Countermeasure

Title:EMI Noise Reduction Tape Containing Magnetic-Alloy Film

Author:Toshinori MORI,Masakatsu SENDA

SUMMARY Magnetic tape incorporating a soft magnetic alloy film has been developed to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise current in an electrical cable. The advantage of the magnetic film compared to a ferrite core is shown using an eddy current loss model. The magnetic film exhibited the expected high-loss characteristics above 30 MHz. Laminated resin gives the tape sufficient strength to be wound inside a cable sheath. The fabricated 60- and 90-m-thick tape wound along the whole cable length exhibited noise reduction ratios of 4 to 5 dB for both radiated emission in the range from 30 to 300 MHz, and surge immunity with a magnetic substance whose volume was one-sixth that of a conventional ferrite core. The tape also exhibited no significant degradation in the mechanical and environmental tests and showed the practical durability.

key words EMI,noise reduction tape,soft magnetic alloy film,electrical cable,immunity

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.608-612 2000/3


Title:Estimation of ESD Current Waveshapes by Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

Author:Ki-Chai KIM,Kwang-Sik LEE,Dong-In LEE

SUMMARY This paper presents the method for an estimation of electrostatic discharge current waveshapes by radiated electromagnetic fields. The method of current waveshape estimation described is using the one-antenna method (single field method) and two-antenna method (complex field method) with a measured electric or magnetic fields at given field point by a time domain antenna. In order to verify the availability of the estimation theory, the discharge current waveform estimation were performed by one and two antenna methods using the measured electric fields of Wilson & Ma's and compared with experiments.

key words ESD,estimation of current waveform,inverse problem

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.613-617 2000/3


Title:Determination of a Relevant Criterion to Characterize Differential Conducted Disturbances Generated by Low Frequency Converters

Author:Fabrice GUITTON,Didier MAGNON

SUMMARY This paper demonstrates the slope isn't an appropriate parameter to characterize a signal regarding conducted electromagnetic disturbances. On the other hand, a relevant criterion is made conspicuous: it defines the maximum slope deviation between two segments forming a signal. This criterion is validated by a signal with a maximum slope of 400 mA/s.

key words conducted perturbations,di/dt,STFT,commutation slope

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.618-621 2000/3


Title:Experimental Investigation of Noise Immunity Diagnosis for Battery Drived Circuit by Bulk Current Injection Test

Author:Kohji SASABE,Kazuhisa YOSHIDA,Osamu FUJIWARA

SUMMARY A simple method for diagnosing noise immunity of printed circuit boards (PCBs) by the bulk current injection (BCI) test was proposed, which can contribute to the PCB trace designs for common-mode noise. A grading index, which is defined as the ratio of the stray capacitances with and without critical IC of malfunction, was introduced to distinguish the PCB susceptible to the common-mode noise. This proposed method was validated experimentally using four PCBs with the same circuit but different trace design. It was observed that the noise immunity of PCBs had a good correlation with the values of these grading indices.

key words immunity diagnosis,common-mode impedance,bulk current injection (BCI) test

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.622-625 2000/3


Title:Reduction Method of Voltage Fluctuation of DC Power Supply in Digital IC

Author:Tadaharu AKINO,Yasuhiro ONO,Shinichi SHINOHARA,Risaburo SATO

SUMMARY This paper describes how voltage fluctuation in the DC power supply of a digital IC can be reduced, by means of molding the package-pin in a ferrite-resin composite. The voltage fluctuation of the DC power supply, when the input terminal was driven by a 40 MHz, 5 Vp-p pulse wave, was measured using an oscilloscope. Simultaneously, the voltage spectrum of the fluctuation was measured using a spectrum analyzer. As a result, the voltage fluctuation was decreased by about 50 % when the IC package-pins were molded in a ferrite-resin composite, in which the iac of the ferrite powder equalled 100, and the powder content was 80 weight-%. In the same IC, there was the reduction effect of the voltage spectrum of the fluctuation was recognized in the frequency range 40 MHz to 1 GHz.

key words digital IC,package-pin,voltage fluctuation,voltage spectrum,ferrite-resin composite

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.626-637 2000/3

Category:Communication Networks and Services

Title:Bandwidth Allocation for Virtual Paths in ATM Networks with Dynamic Routing

Author:Eric W. M. WONG,Andy K. M. CHAN,Sammy CHAN,King-Tim KO

SUMMARY The Virtual Path (VP) concept in ATM networks simplifies network structure, traffic control and resource management. For VP formulation, a VP can carry traffic of the same type (the separate scheme) or of different types (the unified scheme). For VP adjustment, a certain amount of bandwidth can be dynamically assigned (reserved) to VPs, where the amount (the bandwidth incremental/decremental size) is a predetermined system parameter. In this paper, we study Least Loaded Path-based dynamic routing schemes with various residual bandwidth definitions under different bandwidth allocation (VP formulation and adjustment) schemes. In particular, we evaluate the call blocking probability and VP set-up processing load with varying (bandwidth) incremental sizes. Also, We investigate numerically how the use of VP trades the blocking probability with the processing load. It is found that the unified scheme could outperform the separate scheme in certain incremental sizes. Moreover, we propose two ways to reduce the processing load without increasing the blocking probability. Using these methods, the separate scheme always outperforms the unified scheme.

key words bandwidth allocation,ATM networks,dynamic routing,virtual paths,VP adjustment

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.638-645 2000/3

Category:Communication Networks and Services

Title:Parameter Dimensioning Algorithms of the PNNI Complex Node Model with Bypasses

Author:Jin LIU,Zhisheng NIU,Junli ZHENG

SUMMARY In this paper, we propose optimization approaches for the parameter determination of the PNNI complex node model. Two optimal objectives are discussed: Least Square Approximation and Maximum Deviation Minimization. For each objective, we propose two practical criteria for setting up bypasses: Maximum Difference Removal and Largest Deviation Removal. Generalized inverse of matrix and linear programming techniques are used to find the solutions. The numerical results show that the least square approximation with the largest deviation removal criteria has the best performance as the number of bypasses increases.

key words ATM networks,PNNI,QoS,aggregation

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.646-658 2000/3

Category:Switching and Communication Processing

Title:Virtual Source/Virtual Destination (VS/VD) Congestion Control for Multicast ABR Services in ATM Networks

Author:Chen-Ming CHUANG,Jin-Fu CHANG

SUMMARY Although in recent years, considerable efforts have been exerted on treating the congestion control problems of ABR services in the ATM networks, the focus has been so far mostly on unicast applications. The inclusion of the emerging multicast services in the design of congestion control schemes is still at its infancy. The generic rate-based closed-loop congestion control scheme proposed by the ATM Forum for ABR services suffers from large delay-bandwidth product. VS/VD behavior is therefore proposed by the Forum as an supplement. In this paper, two VS/VD behavior congestion control schemes for multicast ABR services in the ATM networks are examined : forward explicit congestion notification (FECN) and backward explicit congestion notification (BECN). Their performances are analyzed and compared. We further observe that both VS/VD schemes alleviate the problem of consolidation noise and consolidation delay of the RM cells returning from the downstream nodes. The alleviation of consolidation noise and consolidation delay is a major concern of most present researches. Simulation results are also given to support the validity of our analysis and claims.

key words multicast,ABR,congestion control,virtual source,virtual destination

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.659-671 2000/3

Category:Switching and Communication Processing

Title:Connection-Wise End-to-End Delay Analysis in ATM Networks

Author:Huei-Wen FERNG,Jin-Fu CHANG

SUMMARY A systematic method for connection-wise end-to-end delay analysis in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks is proposed. This method consists of the followings: (i) per-stream nodal analysis; (ii) output processes characterization; and (iii) moment matching scheme. Following our previous work, we employ H-MMPPs/Slotted D/1 to model ATM queues. Each virtual connection (VC) in ATM networks can be regarded as a tandem configuration of such queues. In [1], the per-stream analytical results for such an H-MMPPs/Slotted D/1 queue have been provided. In this paper, not only the composite output process is exactly characterized, but also the component in an output process that corresponds to a specific traffic stream is approximated via a decomposition scheme. A moment matching scheme to emulate the per-stream output process as a two-state MMPP is further proposed. Through moment matching, we can then approximate the connection-wise end-to-end delay by recursively performing the nodal performance analysis. The connection-wise end-to-end delay is crucial to network resource decision or control problems such as call admission control (CAC) and routing.

key words ATM,MMPP,H-MMPPs/Slotted D/1 queue,tandem queues,end-to-end performance

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.672-679 2000/3

Category:Signaling System and Communication Protocol

Title:New Self-Healing Scheme that Realizes Differentiated Bandwidth Requirement on ATM Networks

Author:Taishi YAHARA,Ryutaro KAWAMURA,Satoru OHTA

SUMMARY This paper proposes a new self-healing scheme that differentiates the bandwidth requirement for each network service on ATM networks. First, we show the necessity of our proposed scheme. In the future network, we must satisfy two demands, rapid restoration from failure and differentiated bandwidth requirements. The conventional restoration scheme, called the self-healing scheme, realizes rapid restoration, but does not support bandwidth differentiation; the new self-healing scheme proposed herein does. We also show that the proposed scheme reduces the spare resources required for backup. The scheme can be realized as a simple extension of the conventional self-healing scheme. Finally, simulations show that the proposed scheme requires fewer spare resources while offering comparable restoration time to the conventional approach against any demand pattern.

key words ATM,restoration,self-healing,differentiated bandwidth requiremen

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.680-689 2000/3

Category:Signaling System and Communication Protocol

Title:Virtual-Cost-Based Algorithm for Dynamic Multicast Routing in Satellite-Terrestrial Networks

Author:Takuya ASAKA,Takumi MIYOSHI,Yoshiaki TANAKA

SUMMARY Satellite-terrestrial (ST) networks, in which many nodes are interconnected by both satellite and terrestrial networks, can efficiently support multicast services. This is because satellite broadcasting is suitable for a large multicast group and a terrestrial network is suitable for a small multicast group. An ST network requires a multicast routing algorithm that can select the appropriate satellite and terrestrial routes. Conventional dynamic routing algorithms for terrestrial networks cannot construct an efficient multicast routing tree because they basically select a less-expensive route when a node is added. We have developed a dynamic routing algorithm, a virtual-cost-based algorithm, for ST networks that selects the route to use according to the multicast group size when a node is added to the group. Simulation showed that the proposed algorithm is advantageous when nodes are added to or removed from the multicast group during steady-state simulation.

key words multicast,routing,satellite,terrestrial,network

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.690-696 2000/3

Category:Optical Communication

Title:Wavelength Demultiplexer for Optically Amplified WDM Submarine Cable System

Author:Tomohiro OTANI,Toshio KAWAZAWA,Koji GOTO

SUMMARY The wavelength demultiplexer, using cascaded optical fiber gratings and circulators, was proposed and developed for application to optically amplified wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) submarine cable systems with 100 GHz channel spacing. Our proposed demultiplexer cannot only achieve high wavelength selectivity, small excess loss and effective allocation of dispersion compensation fibers for each channel, but also be upgraded without affecting other existing channels. By using this demultiplexer, it has been successfully confirmed that 8 WDM channels were demultiplexed even after 6,000 km transmission including separate compensation of accumulated chromatic dispersion in each channel.

key words optically amplified wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) submarine cable system,wavelength demultiplexer,optical fiber grating,optical circulator

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.697-702 2000/3

Category:Radio Communication

Title:Capacity of the Multicarrier Channel with Frequency- Selective Nakagami Fading


SUMMARY Closed-loop power control providing maximum capacity of the multicarrier channel with frequency selective Nakagami fading is investigated. Use of the famous Gallager channel capacity (water-filling) theorem with the assumption of limited transmitter power and independent fading in partial channels leads to the algorithm for their optimal power loading. Analytical expressions for the capacity of the multicarrier channel as a function of the number of its subchannels and the fading parameters are derived for the cases of Optimal Power Distribution (OPD) and Equal Power Distribution (EPD). The dependence of the capacity gain on the OPD system order, the fading depth and the average SNR due the optimal power control is obtained. Comparison of the power efficiencies of the systems with OPD and EPD is presented.

key words multicarrier modulation,frequency-selective fading,information capacity,power control

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.703-712 2000/3

Category:Mobile Communication

Title:Hierarchy Schedule Sensing Protocol for CDMA Wireless Networks and Its Performance under Multiple Collision and Capture Effect

Author:Hsiao-Hwa CHEN

SUMMARY This paper proposes a new protocol for ad hoc based CDMA wireless local area networks, Hierarchy Schedule Sensing (HSS) protocol. It adopts hierarchical sensing to schedule transmission requests to avoid collisions. Multi-level group spreading codes are used to reduce scheduling delay. The network performance under the HSS protocol is evaluated using a two-dimensional Markov chain model in consideration of collided packets capture effect at receivers. The paper also focuses on the impacts of multiple packet collisions on the performance. A closed formula of the average collision rate is derived explicitly. The results show that the HSS protocol offers a robust performance with low hardware requirement.

key words wireless network,spread spectrum,CDMA,protocol

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.713-720 2000/3

Category:Mobile Communication

Title:TCP versus UDP for Media Synchronization in PHS Internet Access

Author:Shuji TASAKA,Masami KATO,Kotaro NAKAMURA

SUMMARY A performance comparison between TCP and UDP in PHS Internet access is made by experiment from a media synchronization point of view. We consider a situation where PHS mobile terminals access H. 263 video and G. 726 audio stored at a media server by a streaming method. PIAFS is adopted as the data link protocol for the PHS wireless channels. We examined how white noise and Rayleigh fading on the PHS channel as well as the Internet traffic affect the performance. For the comparison, we evaluated several performance measures such as the coefficient of variation of output interval, and found that UDP outperforms TCP in almost all cases.

key words PHS,media synchronization,Internet,TCP,UDP

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.721-733 2000/3

Category:Mobile Communication

Title:Effect of Imperfect Channel Estimation on the Performance of Pilot Channel-Aided Coherent DS-CDMA System over Rayleigh-Fading Multipath Channel

Author:Seokjun KO,Hyungjin CHOI

SUMMARY This paper presents the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the RAKE receiver over a multipath Rayleigh fading channel. The closed-form BER in the downlink single-cell environment is obtained through the analysis of the imperfect channel estimation. We compute the BER as a function of energy-to-noise ratio per bit including the effect of multiple access interference and multipath interference, with channel and system parameters: number of diversity channels L = 1, 3, 6, 12; Doppler frequency shift with fD T = 0.008333, 0.0167, 0.025; residual carrier frequency offset f = -600 600 Hz; averaging length of the channel estimator Np = 128-1536 chips. This analysis allows predicting the system's performance and helps to optimize the parameter setting for the channel estimation process. We show that even if the optimal system parameters are used, the BER performance results in a minimal 4dB degradation in comparison to the perfect channel estimation. Finally, the theoretical results are verified by using the Monte-Carlo computer simulations.

key words channel estimation,Rayleigh fading,coherent RAKE receiver,dissimilar multipath channel

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.734-736 2000/3

Category:Communication Networks and Services

Title:Robust Congestion Control for ABR Service in ATM Networks with Non-responding Connections

Author:Seon-Ho LEE,Ji-Myong NHO,Jong-Tae LIM

SUMMARY This letter proposes a congestion control scheme for the ABR service of ATM networks which have non-responding connections. The control scheme is robust with respect to both the round trip delay and the loss of control information caused by non-responding connections. Thus, it is shown that the proposed control scheme guarantees the QoS of the network.

key words ABR service,ATM networks,non-responding connections

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.737-741 2000/3

Category:Switching and Communication Processing

Title:Performance Evaluation of a Combined Input- and Crosspoint-Queued Switch

Author:Masayoshi NABESHIMA

SUMMARY This letter proposes a combined input- and crosspoint-queued (CIC) switch in which virtual output queuing (VOQ) is used at each input port. This CIC switch has a large buffer at each input port and a small buffer at each crosspoint. It does not require high-speed memory access or high-speed internal cell transmission lines. Since the performance of the CIC switch depends on the scheduling algorithms, we propose new scheduling algorithms for the CIC switch. Numerical results show that the mean cell delay time performance of the CIC switch using the proposed scheduling algorithms is better than that of an input-queued ATM switch. In addition, the required buffer size for the CIC switch using the proposed scheduling algorithms is smaller than that for a crosspoint-queued ATM switch.

key words input-queued ATM switch,crosspoint-queued ATM switch,combined input- and crosspoint-queued switch,cell delay time,required buffer size

Vol.E83-B No.3 pp.742-745 2000/3

Category:Mobile Communication

Title:Sensitivity of the System Capacity with Respect to the System Reliability in a DS-CDMA Cellular System

Author:Insoo KOO,Gwangzeen KO,Yeongyoon CHOI,Kiseon KIM

SUMMARY One of the most important capacity parameters in the DS-CDMA cellular systems is the system reliability on which the reverse link capacity is usually limited by a prescribed lower bound. In this letter, the effect of the system reliability as well as imperfection of the power control on the system capacity is quantitatively considered using sensitivity analysis in a multimedia DS-CDMA cellular system. As a result, an analytical close-form formula is presented in terms of the standard deviation of the received SIR and the system reliability. In a numerical example, sensitivity with respect to the system reliability on the system capacity has the value ranging from 5 to 50 between 95% and 99% the range in we are interested.

key words DS-CDMA,system capacity,the system reliability and sensitivity