EPE Association & Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

8th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications


T1 : Vector control of induction motor drives: understanding based on physical principles and PSpice-based modeling
T2 : Design of mechatronic systems
T3 : Flexible alternative current transmission systems - Power systems approach - State of the art
T4 : Matrix converter technology
T5 : Status of the techniques of the three-phase PWM rectifier systems with low effects on the mains
T6 : Design of open inductors and transformers for power electronics converter
T7 : Drives and electronic parts for electric vehicles
T8 : Low power and low voltage power supplies
T9 : Sensorless control of induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors

Back to main page


T1 : Vector control of induction motor drives: understanding based on physical principles and PSpice-based modeling
by Prof. Ned Mohan


The objective of this tutorial is to simplify the understanding of vector control in induction-motor drives, based on physical principles. PSpice-based modeling will be used to describe the effect of de-tuning on the drive performance.

Intended for

This tutorial is primarily intended for practicing engineers, educators and student with no prior familiarity with vector control of induction motor drives. However, even those with advanced understanding of drives will find this tutorial very useful.


Applications of electric drives are growing very rapidly. This growth is primarily in drives using induction motors that enjoy the advantages of low cost, and rugged construction compared to other machines. Vector control can emulate the performance of dc motors and brush-less dc motors, without their associated drawbacks.

In this tutorial, basic principles are first used to provide a qualitative understanding of vector control. It is shown that with vector control, an induction machine almost instantaneously transitions from one steady state to another steady state, while delivering a step-change in torque. Therefore, a vector-controlled induction machine can be modeled based on steady state analysis. In view of its application to describe vector control, the steady state analysis is carried out by representing magnetic-field distributions in the air gap by space vectors.

Tutorial Notes

A copy of the overhead transparencies used for tutorial presentation will be provided, in addition to a complete, stand alone set of notes which are derived from a soon-to-be-published book.

Course Faculty

Dr. Ned Mohan, Oscar A. Schott Professor of Power Electronics, University of Minnesota, USA


Dr. Ned Mohan has been with the University of Minnesota since 1976 where he is a professor of electrical and computer engineering and holds Oscar A. Schott Chair in power electronics.

He is a co-author of a widely-used textbook on Power Electronics (co-authored with Professors Tore Undeland and William P. Robbins) which has also been translated into several languages.

Recently, in addition to his research activities, he is developing educational material and laboratories for courses in power electronics and motor drives. This effort is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Prof. Mohan is a Fellow of the IEEE.

Back to tutorials menu


T2 : Design of mechatronic systems
by Dr S. Colombi


"Mechatronics" is a rapidly growing field, resulting from the combination of classical electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and computer science.

Mechatronics deals then with all the problems for which an efficient solution (i.e. more performant and/or cheaper) can be found by combining the three fields. The key point is that a mechatronics solution must improve the classical mechanical solution. The aim of this tutorial is to give an overview of the mechatronics design of a system, i.e. how to improve the mechanical solution using actuators, sensors, electronics and control algorithms. The latter are a typical feature of a mechatronic system and can be considered as "the heart of the system". In fact, thanks to the considerable advances in the microelectronics field, it is now possible to include more and more cheap intelligence in a system. The lecture is based on several real application examples that illustrate the various features of the mechatronics design and that are an important source of inspiration for many other applications. A design is always a "question of compromise" requiring a careful balancing of different parameters: mechanical system, actuators (motors + gearboxes), power supply, sensors, control algorithms, hardware and software architecture. A system design is the key of success. There is always a multitude of different solutions for a given problem. The art of the mechatronic designer consists in striking the best compromises that optimise the global system. For this, a methodology is outlined based on the diagram of influence and on mechanical equivalents that allow an intuitive comprehension of complex systems. The simulation is also very effective. For mechatronic systems, the Matlab/SimulinkÔ and SimplorerÔ packages are particularly well suited and their utility will be demonstrated in the presented application examples.

Intended for

The course is intended for design engineers, industry application engineers and researchers working in the field of mechatronics, motion control and system design or willing to introduce them to this rapidly growing field which concern more and more industrial products.


09.00-09.30 Introduction

Definition, functions and solutions, examples of mechatronic systems.

09.30-10.30 Specification and design of mechatronic systems

Direct and inverse problem, design of mechatronic systems (cost, performances, system approach, diagram of influence, design steps, simulation and design tools), mechanical equivalents.

10.30-11.30 Mechanical aspects and mechanical systems

Modelling: force/torque balance approach or energy based approach, examples of mechanical systems, oscillating systems, mechanical friction, stick-slip.

11.30-12.30 Command and control aspects

The control, heart of the mechatronic system, bandwidth of a control, multivariable description of the mechanical system, control structure with non linear feedback, additional problems (sampling and quantisation, small time constants, structure and parameter uncertainties, disturbances, limitations).

12.30-13.30 Lunch Break
13.30-14.30 Numerical simulation

General considerations (modelling, quantisation and numerical problems), overview of Matlab/Simulink and Simplorer (characteristics and special features, advantages and drawbacks).

14.30-18.00 Selected application examples (depending on the audience interests)

Master-Slave force reflecting servomechanisms (45’),

Actuators and controls for a master-slave force reflecting servomanipulator (30’),

Electronic stiffening of mechanical transmissions (30’),

Electronic stiffening and linearisation of actuators; control of the JET Boom (45’),

Electronic compensation of the parasitic torques of brushless DC motors (30’),

Magnetic levitation and lateral guidance of a vehicle (45’),

Control of a parallelogram robot (45’),

Automotive applications (45’)

For each application example, the teaching include a theoretical part (modelling, control design) followed by the validation in simulation on a PC.

17.45-18.00 Concluding discussion

Course Faculty

Dr S. Colombi - IMV Invertomatic Technology SA, Switzerland


Silvio Colombi is born in Locarno (Switzerland) in 1959. MSc in Electrical Engineering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in 1983 and PhD in 1987. As assistant then 1rst assistant at the Industrial Electronics Laboratory (LEI), he has worked on and lead numerous industrial and research projects. He has worked at JET (Joint European Torus) in Abingdon (UK) on teleoperation problems in 1990 as Associated Staff and in 1993/1994 as TeleMan Fellow. He has negotiated and carried out several European projects and many consultations for the industry. In 1994, he is scientific associate at the LEI and leads the mechatronics group. In 1996, he is lecturer of mechatronics at the EPFL and works as a part time independent consultant for the SMH Automobile in Bienne. In 1998, he joins IMV Invertomatic Technology in Riazzino as responsible for the development of new technologies. He is the author of some industrial patents and about 30 publications dealing with modelling, simulation, control, mechatronics and industrial electronics.

Back to tutorials menu


T3 : Flexible alternative current transmission systems - Power systems approach - State of the art
by Prof. M. Crappe, Prof. K. L. Lo, Prof. A. Rufer and Prof. J. Trecat


This one-day tutorial is in relation with topic 9 « Power electronics in Generation, Transmission and Distribution » and more particularly the topics 9c and 9g.

It aims at giving an introduction for non power systems specialists to new appealing systems (FACTS) promised to a large development in the near future in electric utilities.

It will also present the state of the art based on existing devices, projects and investigations through simulations. The emerging issues and the prospects in the fields of power electronics components, inverter structures (as multilevel inverters) and advanced control techniques (as ANN) will be discussed.


8.30 - 10.30 Introduction to the FACTSProf. M. Crappe and Prof. J. Trecat

Power system essential

Meshed network computatiuon (load flow, power loop, …)

Voltage and frequency control

Dynamic behaviour of the generators

Transient and dynamic stability

Recent trends in the power system evolution and FACTS

Extension of the interconnections, power exchange increasing, ecological opposition to new lines and new power stations, deregulation of power markets, European Community policy

Description of power electronics controllers

Systems based on thyristors

SVC (static var compensator)

TSSC (thyristor switched series capacitor)

TCSC (thyristor controlled series capacitor) or ASC (advanced series compensation)

Thyristor phase shifter

Systems based on IGBT, GTO or IGCT

ASVC (advanced static var compensator) or STATCOM

UPFC (unified power flow controller)

Survey of the existing applications

10.30 - 11.00 coffee break

11.00 - 12.30 Simulation and control of FACTS Prof. K. L. Lo

This part is dealing with the modelling of UPFC and the coordinate of multiple UPFCs for steady state system operation with the help of ANN. The tutorial will proceed to use multiple FACT devices, multiple TCSCs, for improvement of dynamic stability of power system. The coordination of these devices will be centered on the use of fuzzy logic controllers.

14.00 – 15.30 State of the art Prof. A. Rufer

State of the art and prospects in power electronic components (thyristor, GTO and IGCT), emphasis will be put on IGCT.

Survey of the possible structures of converters in large power and high voltage applications.

15.30 – 16.00 coffee break

16.00 – 17.30 Numerical simulation demonstrations



Intended for

Tutorial devoted to power electronic engineers needing to understand the pecularities of power system behaviour, justifying fast power electronics control means.

Course faculty

Prof. M. Crappe and Prof. J. Trecat, Faculté Polytechnique de Mons, Belgium ; Prof. K.L. Lo, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom and Prof. A. Rufer, EPFL, Switzerland


Michel Crappe (1936) received his degrees in Civil Mining and Civil Electrical Engineering in 1959 and 1962 respectively, from the Faculté Polytechnique de Mons (Belgium). After three years at Corps des Mines in Belgium he joined the Faculté Polytechnique de Mons in 1963 where he has been full professor in charge of the Electrical Machines Department since 1971. Author and co-author of 75 scientific papers, his research areas include electrical machines development, system identification concepts, and particularly the dynamic behavior of large synchronous machines in the power systems. Since 1982, he also teaches Electrical Machines in Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Valenciennes (France). He is a member of the AMPERE Commission created in Belgium by Minister of Energy in order to study the problem of electrical energy generation in the future.

He is member of the IMACS TC1, and EPE, Steering Committees, and also of EPE Executive Council. Prof. M. CRAPPE has been on the Editorial Boards of the Electrical Power Engineering (ETEP), Electromotion et Revue Internationale de Génie Electrique since their launching respectively in 1991, 1994 and 1998. Recipient of the 1998 PES Prize Paper Award of IEEE. He is member of CIGRE, EPE, IMACS, SEE (Senior Member) and of several Scientific Committees in Belgium and in France.

J. Trécat, IEEE Senior Member, graduated from Faculté Polytechnique de Mons in 1963 and received his PhD degree from UMIST (UK) in 1970. He is now Professor of Power Systems in the Electrical Engineering Department of Faculté Polytechnique de Mons. He is author and co-author of several papers in Power Systems.

Back to tutorials menu


T4 : Matrix converter technology
by Dr Patrick Wheeler and Dr Jon Clare


The matrix converter permits direct AC-AC power conversion without an intermediate DC link and therefore represents an "all silicon" solution as the power converter for variable speed AC drives. Compared to conventional drives there is potential for reduced cost of manufacture and maintenance, and increased power/weight and power/volume ratios. The circuit is inherently capable of bi-directional power flow and also offers virtually sinusoidal input current, without the harmonics usually associated with present commercial inverters. This tutorial will present the current status of matrix converter technology and discuss existing solutions to the technical challenges that must be addressed before full commercial exploitation of the circuit can be achieved.


Recently there has been considerable industrial interest in the use of matrix converters for a wide range of applications. These include low power applications such as integrated drives and higher power ones such as marine propulsion. In many of these situations the advantages offered by the matrix converter circuit outweigh the perceived problems and actual technical challenges. The tutorial is therefore very topical and timely.

The tutorial will:

The tutorial will use appropriate practical results from various prototype matrix converters to illustrate the topics under discussion. These results will be backed up with simulation studies and design curves where appropriate.

  1. Introduction to Matrix Converters - Dr Jon Clare and Dr Pat Wheeler
  1. The basic concepts
  2. Introduction to mathematical framework
  3. Examples of typical operating characteristics and waveforms
  4. Potential advantages of matrix converter technology
  5. Perceived and theoretical limitations
  6. Technical challenges
  7. Historical development and key publications
  1. Power Circuit Implementation - Dr Pat Wheeler
  1. Bi-directional switch implementation – review of possibilities
  2. The current commutation problem
  3. Practical circuit layout considerations
  4. Advanced current commutation strategies
  5. Resonant (soft switching) techniques
  6. Circuit protection issues
  1. Modulation Algorithms - Dr Jon Clare
  1. The modulation problem and basic solutions
  2. Voltage ratio limitation
  3. Key algorithms with optimized voltage ratio
  4. Spectral characteristics of converter input and output waveforms
  5. Filtering requirements
  6. Practical microprocessor implementation of modulation algorithms
  1. Summary - Dr Pat Wheeler and Dr Jon Clare
  1. The future and possible exploitation
  2. Question and answer session

Intended for

The tutorial will be of interest to anyone that works in the area of power electronic converters for AC applications and would like to develop a more informed understanding of the matrix converter circuit. These applications include converters for motor drives and static power converters for power conditioning. The tutorial will be aim to address the interests and concerns of both industrial and academic delegates at a time when many are considering the benefits of matrix converter technology for future applications.

Course Faculty

Dr Patrick Wheeler and Dr Jon Clare, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom


Dr Patrick Wheeler and Dr Jon Clare are both in the Power Electronics, Machines and Control (PEMC) group in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Nottingham in England. They both have over ten years experience in the design, construction and control of matrix converters through a number of research programmes and have over 14 publications on various aspects of the circuit. The world class expertise of Dr Patrick Wheeler and Dr Jon Clare in the area of matrix converter technology has been recognised by a number of international organisations and they are currently acting as consultants on matrix converter technology to the U.S. Army Research Laboratories.

Dr Patrick W Wheeler received his PhD degree in Electrical Engineering for his work on Matrix Converters at the University of Bristol, England, in 1993. In 1993 he moved to the University of Nottingham and became a lecturer in May 1996. His general research interests include novel switching power converter circuits for AC drives, micro-controllers for drive applications and the use of switching devices in power electronics.

Dr Jon Clare is a senior lecturer at the University of Nottingham. He moved to Nottingham from the University of Bristol in 1990. His general interests are power electronic converters and systems, control and modelling techniques for power electronic systems and their associated applications, variable speed drives and EMC.

Back to tutorials menu


T5 : Status of the techniques of the three-phase PWM rectifier systems with low effects on the mains
by Dr Johann W. Kolar and Dr Hans Ertl


This practice-oriented course gives an in-depth introduction to all important aspects of the evaluation, analysis and design of three-phase power factor correction (PFC) systems. Starting with a review, classification and analysis of all relevant three-phase converter topologies proposed in the literature during the last decade the basic principle of operation of selected systems will be discussed using phase quantities and space vector calculus. Advantages and drawbacks of single-stage and two-stage isolated AC/DC power conversion will be clarified. Characteristic quantities facilitating the evaluation of various concepts for a given application will be defined. Furthermore, modulation methods, the control oriented behavior, different controller concepts and the controller design for buck-type and boost-type systems will be treated. Also, a simple concept for determining the stresses on the power components will be proposed and the procedure of dimensioning a three-phase PWM rectifier system will be discussed. In connection with this, also the status of different power semiconductor technologies, cooling concepts and packaging techniques will be treated and guidelines for selecting the optimal switch for a different input voltage and power levels will be given. Further important points will be a comparative evaluation of high power telecommunications power supply modules of different manufacturers concerning power density, efficiency and volume and measures for guaranteeing electromagnetic compatibility by differential-mode and common-mode filtering. Finally, the advantages and drawbacks of various simulation tools for application in system design will be discussed and laboratory models of novel PWM rectifier topologies will be shown. Also, alternative concepts like active filters and upcoming developments in the field will be treated.


Intended for

Design Engineers and Design Managers working in the fields of drive technology, process technology (electric welding current sources, inductive heating etc.) and power supply (high power telecommunications power supplies, battery charging, UPS, etc.), engineers concerned with Power Quality of three-phase equipment as well as academics and students preparing for a Ph.D. in the field.

Course Faculty

Dr Johann W. Kolar, TU Vienna, Dept. of Electr. Drives and Machines, and Dr Hans Ertl, TU Vienna, Dept. of Applied Electronics


Johann W. Kolar received the Ph.D. degree (summa cum laude) in Electrical Engineering at the Technical University Vienna where he joined the Dept. of Electrical Drives and Machines in fall 1997. He currently does research in the area of high power factor PWM rectifier systems and control optimization of three-phase inverter topologies for wide speed range AC drives. Also, he is involved as a consultant in numerous industrial research and development projects on AC line conditioning, switched-mode power supplies and inverters. He is the author of 103 technical and scientific papers and patents and is serving as Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics since 1997.

Hans Ertl received the Dipl.-Ing. (M.S.) degree and the Dr.tech. (Ph.D.) degree in electrical engineering from the Technical University Vienna. Since 1984 he is with the Power Electronics Section of the university and has been working on several industrial research projects in the areas DC and AC drives, power supplies for welding and plasma processes and active rectifier systems. His current research activities are in the field of switched-mode power supplies, class-D power amplifiers and active ripple reduction of power electronic systems. He is the author and co-author of numerous scientific papers and patents.

Back to tutorials menu


T6 : Design of open inductors and transformers for power electronics converter
by Profs. Tore Undeland and Robert Nilssen and assoc. Prof. Asle Skjellnes


The design of Ferrite and METGLAS inductors and transformers will be explained based upon the fundamental physics. A lot of design examples will be discussed and for all these designs measure results will be presented. Since the tutorial is based upon physics and the basic equations, those who follow this course will learn a lot. They will also learn to have a lot of creativity.

We will bring the small inductors and transformers we have designed and made measurements on. We will discuss extensively how to reduce the losses and how to improve the cooling.

Course Faculty

Profs. Tore Undeland and Robert Nilssen and assoc. Prof. Asle Skjellnes, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications

Back to tutorials menu


T7 : Drives and electronic parts for electric vehicles
by Prof. H. Kahlen, Prof. Ferraris, Prof. G. Maggetto, Dr Hauck and Dr Lamm


The important electrical parts of an electric vehicle work together with power electronic and electronic control systems. The tutorial will give an understanding of the drive system and the goals for the necessary power electronic parts for different drives.

Battery charging needs well controlled chargers and good equipments for conductive and inductive connection. The spectrum for the power electronic parts goes from net frequency to high frequencies. EVs with fuel cell systems need a lot of peripheral components which will also content the tutorial.


This part will discuss the drive system consisting of electrical as well mechanical parts: single or multi-motor drives, transmission, hybrid systems, etc...

Different DC and AC motors are used in EVs. Theory and design of standard asynchronous, synchronous and PM synchronous motors will be the content of the course.

This part will discuss the different power semiconductor available for the design of converter circuits, choppers, inverters, power supply.

Analysis and discussion of different types of charger used practically nowadays on-board the electric vehicles, including conductive and inductive charging systems.

This parts emphasizes the small signal electronics used in the electric vehicle: microprocessor, bus systems, memories, etc... to monitor and communicate.

A fuel-cell system is more than an electrochemical power source like a battery. The system needs a lot of peripheral parts.

Intended for

Powerelectronics and drives people with interst for the future of electric and hybrid vehicles.

Course Faculty

Prof. Hans Kahlen, University of Kaiserslautern,

Prof. Paolo Ferraris, Politecnico di Torino,

Prof. Gaston Maggetto, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,

Dr Bernhard Hauck, University of Kaiserslautern,

Dr Arnold Lamm, DaimlerChrysler Ulm

Back to tutorials menu


T8 : Low power and low voltage power supplies
by assoc. Prof. José A. Cobos and Prof. Javier Uceda


This seminar covers design issues on Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM), which are advanced power supplies to feed the new low voltage and low power integrated circuits. The main requirements are high efficiency, small size and fast dynamic response.

New techniques are proposed to reduce losses and increase power density in these low output voltage DC/DC converters, which are based on the use of synchronous rectification. The new schemes to perform this task are very sensitive to the coupling of the power transformer. Design guidelines to optimize these components and an assessment on the most appropriate technologies are also described in detail.

The seminar covers the whole design cycle, providing guidelines to select the optimum topology for a given specification. Finally these guidelines are applied to the design of an actual demonstrators that supplies efficiently 1.5V for Telecom applications.


Concepts on Low Power and Low Voltage

New specs and goals of VRM (Voltage Regulator Module)

Key issues to meet specifications

Analysis of most suitable topologies

Demonstration and assessment of actual results

Intended for

The seminar is useful to a broad range of designers, ranging from novel to experienced engineers in the field of power electronics, who will need to design power supplies for the coming low power integrated circuits.

Course Faculty

José A. Cobos and Javier Uceda, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain


Javier Uceda: Doctoral degrees from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) in 1979.

From 1976 to 1981 he was Assistant Professor at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. In 1982 he became Professor at Universidad de Oviedo. Since 1986, he is Professor at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

His research interests include high-frequency and high-density power converters, high power factor rectifiers and modeling of magnetic components. He is co-author of more than 100 technical papers in IEEE conferences and publications.

He is member of the Editorial Board of the European Power Electronics and Drives (EPE) Journal and of the Steering Committee of the EPE Association. He is member of the Adcoms of both IEEE Power Electronics and Industrial Electronics Societies.

José A. Cobos: Doctoral degrees in Electrical Engineering from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in 1994. He joined the División de Ingeniería Electrónica of this university in 1987, where he is Associate Professor since 1996.

He is member of the IEEE since 1992, where he has contributed in different activities. He published more than 75 papers in International conferences and journals, most of them from the IEEE. He is Member of the Program Committee of various International conferences (PESC, APEC, INTELEC, PEDES, CIEP and EPE).

He is involved in many European research projects dealing with most topics related with high frequency power supplies. His main interests are distributed power supplies, on board converters, power factor correction, and modeling of systems and magnetic components.

Back to tutorials menu


T9 : Sensorless control of induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors
by Prof. Dr Manfred Schrödl


The tutorial shows methods of speed-sensorless control of induction machines and permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs, EC motors, Brushless DC motors, respectively). The presented methods offer the possibility of a relatively simple implementation in industrial drives and hence, methods with high mathematical expense will only be mentioned briefly. EMF-based models for high speed as well as saturation-based and reluctance-based models for low speed and standstill will be discussed.

The author shows practical examples of realized drives. A practical demonstration example of a sensorless PSMS drive with high starting torque will be presented. Possible fields of applications for sensorless drives will be discussed.


  1. Introduction (15’)
  1. Basic inverter structure for sensorless IM and PM drives (30’)
  1. General mathematical description of AC machines (45’)
  1. The permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor – Modelling, Control (30’)

General description

Control methods

  1. Sensorless rotor position detection of the PMSM (60’)

Sensorless position detection at high speed

Position detection at low speed and standstill (INFORM method) (INFORM : Indirect Flux detection by On-line Reactance Measurement)

Improving the estimated rotor position and developing estimated speed

  1. The induction motor – modelling and control (30’)

General description

Control methods

  1. Sensorless rotor flux angular position detection of the IM (60’)

Sensorless position detection at high speed

Sensorless flux detection at low speed

Improving the estimated rotor flux position

  1. Practical example (Demonstration) (30’)
  1. Systematic selection of appropriate sensorless control schemes (20’)
  1. Discussion

Intended for

R&D engineers in the field of speed-variable electric drives (e.g. automotive, traction, pumps and fans, elevators, chemical and machinery industry); Diploma and doctoral students of Electric Engineering ; Project managers of industrial and scientific drive projects.

Course faculty

Prof. Dr. Manfred Schrödl, Technical University of Vienna, Austria


Prof. Manfred Schrödl achieved his Dipl.Ing. (1982), Dr. (1987) and habilitation degree (1992) at TU Vienna. Between 1992 and 1996 he was head of the development department of ELIN Vienna. From 1996 to 1998 he was head of the central technical division of ATB Austrai Antriebstechnik, Spielberg (Styria, Austria). Since February 1998, he is head of the Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines at Vienna University of Technology. He has about 50 publications and 10 patents mainly in the field of Electrical Drives. His actual main research field is Sensorless Control of AC Machines.

Back to tutorials menu


Number of hits:490 (since January 12th, 1998)
Mail to Local Organisation Committee: epe99@epfl.ch
Copyright © 1998, EPFL. All rights reserved.
Last update: Thursday, 03-Jun-99 14:46:13 MET DST